Our body mass index has a strong link to diabetes and insulin resistance. Diabetes mellitus can alter carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. This alteration is caused due to the absence of insulin secretion, either due to progressive or marked inability of the pancreas to produce insulin or because of insulin resistance. Therefore, diabetes and obesity are intricately related.
Diabetes and Obesity- The Connection
Any person who is overweight or obese has some kind of insulin resistance. In this type the insulin level of people may be high but may still not be enough to normalize the level of glycemia.
Obesity is defined as the excess accumulation of adipose tissue, to an extent that it impairs the physical health and well-being of a person. Obesity is considered as a health disaster in not just developed but developing countries as well.
Obesity and Type 1 Diabetes
The alarming link between type 1 diabetes and weight gain can be derived as per The Baum et al study which suggests that there might be an association in relation to overfeeding or hormonal dysregulation. As young children gain more weight, diabetes can be diagnosed sooner. This can be explained because more weight accelerates insulin resistance, leading to the development of type 1 diabetes in individuals genetically prone to diabetes.
Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes
Obesity is also known to be the most important factor in the development of metabolic diseases.
How: Adipose tissue affects the human metabolism by secreting hormones, glycerol, and other substances including leptin, cytokines and pro-inflammatory substances. In obese people, the secretion of these substances increases.
The insulin sensitivity is determined by another important factor, which is the body fat distribution. Individuals whose fat distribution is more peripheral have more insulin sensitivity than those whose fat distribution is more central which is around the abdomen and chest area.
Type 2 diabetes as well as obesity is associated with insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity fluctuation occurs across every individual’s natural life cycle. In addition, lifestyle changes like increased carbohydrate intake and increased physical activity, are associated with insulin sensitivity fluctuations as well.
Diabetes and Obesity- How Can Diabetics Manage Their Condition?
Currently, we cannot do much about the genetic makeup that influences our pancreatic beta cell function however we can improve our insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk ahead of us with a proper diet and exercise.
Along with a proper diet and exercise, it is also important that you monitor your sugar levels on a regular basis. It is only when you know whether your sugar levels are in the high or low range, you will be able to make the right changes.